By Alena Kabelov¿, Libor Dost¿lek
The TCP/IP protocol stack is the root of the web and, extra as a rule, community communique. working at a variety of actual and logical layers, those protocols are the language that permit desktops to speak with one another. whereas so much IT pros dont paintings on the protocol point usually, there are occasions while a transparent knowing of whats going on the community point will be useful. this is often the booklet to provide that grounding and to behave as a definitive reference while wanted. This e-book is acceptable for the beginner and skilled procedure directors, programmers, and someone who want to the right way to paintings with the TCP/IP protocol suite. it may be learn even by means of those that have little history in networking.
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Additional resources for Understanding Tcp/ip
As the figure above shows, IP datagrams 1, 2, and 3 start from the node A to node B, but from this point, datagrams 1 and 3 are routed through a different path than datagram 2. The destination (node D) is then reached by each of them via a different path. Generally, IP datagrams may reach their destination in a different order than the order in which they were sent. So our IP datagrams could be received in the following order: 2, 1, and then 3. In the Internet hierarchy, TCP—a higher-layer protocol that establishes a connection and guarantees the delivery of data—is used above the connectionless IP.
2 TCP and UDP TCP and UDP correspond to the transportation layer. TCP transports data using TCP segments that are addressed to individual applications. UDP transports data using UDP datagrams. TCP and UDP arrange a connection between applications that run on remote computers. TCP and UDP can also facilitate communication between processes running on the same computer, but this is not very interesting for our purposes. The difference between TCP and UDP is that TCP is a connection-oriented service—the destination confirms the data received.
If some of the data packets are lost, their retransmission is requested. If the data packets were lost due to the destruction of a node along the way and there is another routing possible within the network, then the transmission is automatically repeated using the other path. , circuits permanently built by the network administrator. , virtual circuits that are created dynamically as the need arises. An SVC is created with the help of signalizing protocols that can be used for communicating between the user and the network itself.
Understanding Tcp/ip by Alena Kabelov¿, Libor Dost¿lek