Download e-book for iPad: New Trends and Developments in Automotive System Engineering by Marcello Chiaberge

By Marcello Chiaberge

ISBN-10: 9533075171

ISBN-13: 9789533075174

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In this work, it should be at least 9 restrictions. Therefore, besides the three normalization restrictions, it was also imposed three homogeneity and three symmetry constraints in order to be consistent with economic theory. Table 9 reports the estimated α and β matrices with the standard errors of the parameters6. The diagnosis statistics of the results are clearly satisfactory. 18, which is under the 4 This is a reasonable premise since relatively low order vector auto regressive models generally suffice in cointegration analysis.

Relating to the cointegration rank, it is normally assumed that among (2n+1) variables (n budget shares, n prices and real expenditure) there are n-1 cointegrating vectors. In this work, with 9 variables, it is thus expected to have 3 cointegrating equations. Table 8 presents the Johansen trace statistic, which confirms the presence of three cointegrating relationships5. 76 Source: own elaboration Table 8. Results from Johansen Cointegration Rank Test As mentioned previously, the economic interpretation of the cointegrating vectors as structural long run relationships requires the imposition of at least r2 restrictions.

This work then incorporates this dynamic aspect of consumer choice following the cointegration theory for it is possible to meet the requirements of identification/estimation of: long run preference parameters; separation of short run from long run effects; and LAAIDS system. In order to describe the dynamic model of LA-AIDs, the system in (5) can be rewritten as a vector error correction model (VECM) as follows: ΔYt = μ Dt + Γ1ΔYt − 1 + ..... ,q-1), where q is the number of lags; Π is a 8 x 8 matrix of long run LA-AIDS parameters; and et is the vector of disturbances following identical and independent normal distributions with zero mean and E( et et' ) = ∑ .

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New Trends and Developments in Automotive System Engineering by Marcello Chiaberge

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