By Vojkan Vidojkovic, J. van der Tang, Arjan Leeuwenburgh, Arthur H.M. van Roermund
This booklet investigates recommendations, merits, barriers, and prices linked to multi-standard operation of RF front-ends and their skill to conform to variable radio environments. subsequent, it highlights the optimization of RF front-ends to permit greatest functionality inside a undeniable energy price range, whereas concentrating on complete integration. ultimately, the ebook investigates probabilities for low-voltage, low-power circuit topologies in CMOS know-how.
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Extra resources for Adaptive Multi-Standard RF Front-Ends (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)
Hence, the level of interference changes and design for the worst-case scenario is not optimal design. The most severe consequence of the scaling of CMOS technologies is the supply voltage reduction. Insufficient voltage headroom causes that some circuit topologies can not satisfy the required specifications or even fail to operate. Given these consequences, RF designers have to work on multi-standard adaptive RF transceivers, which are robust with respect to interference, and on low-voltage low-power circuit topologies.
9 GHz. 37), Q can be calculated. 5. There are two reasons for choosing this range for B. First, for B < 50 MHz, Q becomes too high. Second, for B > 200 MHz, IF must be higher than 100 MHz. Such an IF has negative influence on the ADC power consumption. It can be even higher than 100 mW [35, 36]. The filter order is determined based on the required IRR. It is assumed that the image signal must be 20 dB below the wanted signal in order to avoid SNR degradation. Assuming that the RFIRF is a Butterworth filter with B = 100 MHz, the required filter order (n) as a function of IF is depicted in Fig.
12. 34) 30 CHAPTER 2. 36) Xr (ω ), Yr (ω ) and Xi (ω ), Yi (ω ) represent the real and the imaginary part of the complex signals X (ω ) and Y (ω ), respectively. Based on Fig. 12 it can be seen that filtering of a real signal that is done by the transfer function Hr (ω ) or Hi (ω ) (also called real filtering) is a specific case of the complex filtering performed by the transfer function H(ω ). Therefore, in general, a complex filter is a building block that performs a filtering function. 2. 4 Improvement in maximal achievable IRR As mentioned, the maximal image rejection ratio (IRRmax ) is limited by the accuracy of I/Q generation.
Adaptive Multi-Standard RF Front-Ends (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing) by Vojkan Vidojkovic, J. van der Tang, Arjan Leeuwenburgh, Arthur H.M. van Roermund